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Assessing eligibility for lung cancer screening using parsimonious ensemble machine learning models: A development and validation study

Authors: Thomas Callender , et al. Abstract Background Risk-based screening for lung cancer is currently being considered in several countries; however, the optimal approach to determine eligibility remains unclear. Ensemble machine learning could support the development of highly parsimonious prediction models that maintain the performance of more complex models while maximising simplicity and generalisability, supporting…

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The shape of cancer relapse: Topological data analysis predicts recurrence in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Authors: Salvador Chulián , et al. Abstract Although children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have high survival rates, approximately 15-20% of patients relapse. Risk of relapse is routinely estimated at diagnosis by biological factors, including flow cytometry data. This high-dimensional data is typically manually assessed by projecting it onto a subset of biomarkers….

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Age- and sex-specific hospital bed-day rates in people with and without type 2 diabetes: A territory-wide population-based cohort study of 1.5 million people in Hong Kong

Authors: Hongjiang Wu, et al. Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes affects multiple systems. We aimed to compare age- and sex-specific rates of all-cause and cause-specific hospital bed-days between people with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods and findings Data were provided by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. We included 1,516,508 one-to-one matched people with incident…

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Value of a catch-up HPV test in women aged 65 and above: A Danish population-based nonrandomized intervention study

Authors: Mette Tranberg , et al. Study population From a total of 45,237 women eligible, 11,369 and 33,868 were allocated to the intervention and reference groups, respectively (Fig 1). After exclusions during follow-up, 11,192 (98.4%) women in the intervention group and 33,387 women (98.6%) in the reference group were included for analysis (Fig 1). The…

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Is anyone truly healthy? Trends in health risk factors prevalence and changes in their associations with all-cause mortality

Authors: Winnie W. Yu, et al. Abstract Objective The purpose of the study was to determine trends in the prevalence of individual health risk factors across time and to examine if their associations with mortality have changed over time. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES III– 1988–1994 and NHANES 1999–2014;…

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Bacteria in the oral cavity of individuals consuming intoxicating substances

Authors: Reyaz Ahmad Khan, et al. Abstract Food habits and oral hygiene are critical attributes for physiochemical environment of the oral cavity. Consumption of intoxicating substances such as betel nut (’Tamul’), alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco may strongly influence the oral ecosystem including commensal microbes. Therefore, a comparative assessment of microbes in the oral cavity…

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Combining Mendelian randomization and network deconvolution for inference of causal networks with GWAS summary data

Authors: Zhaotong Lin, et al. Abstract Mendelian randomization (MR) has been increasingly applied for causal inference with observational data by using genetic variants as instrumental variables (IVs). However, the current practice of MR has been largely restricted to investigating the total causal effect between two traits, while it would be useful to infer the direct…

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