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The MGF300-2R protein of African swine fever virus is associated with viral pathogenicity by promoting the autophagic degradation of IKKα and IKKβ through the recruitment of TOLLIP

Authors: Tao Wang , et al. Abstract The multigene family genes (MGFs) in the left variable region (LVR) of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome have been reported to be involved in viral replication in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and virulence in pigs. However, the exact functions of key MGFs in the LVR…

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Broadly neutralizing humanized SARS-CoV-2 antibody binds to a conserved epitope on Spike and provides antiviral protection through inhalation-based delivery in non-human primates

Authors: Paule Hermet, et al. Citation: Hermet P, Delache B, Herate C, Wolf E, Kivi G, Juronen E, et al. (2023) Broadly neutralizing humanized SARS-CoV-2 antibody binds to a conserved epitope on Spike and provides antiviral protection through inhalation-based delivery in non-human primates. PLoS Pathog 19(8): e1011532. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1011532 Editor: Alexander E. Gorbalenya, Leiden University Medical…

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Antibody signatures in hospitalized hand, foot and mouth disease patients with acute enterovirus A71 infection

Authors: Lei You , et al. Abstract Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection is a major cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in young children. The characteristics of EV-A71 neutralizing antibodies in HFMD patients are not well understood. In this study, we identified and cloned EV-A71-neutralizing antibodies by single cell RNA and B cell…

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Viral vector delivered immunogen focuses HIV-1 antibody specificity and increases durability of the circulating antibody recall response

Authors: LaTonya D. Williams , et al. Abstract The modestly efficacious HIV-1 vaccine regimen (RV144) conferred 31% vaccine efficacy at 3 years following the four-shot immunization series, coupled with rapid waning of putative immune correlates of decreased infection risk. New strategies to increase magnitude and durability of protective immunity are critically needed. The RV305 HIV-1…

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Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, infected cell binding and neutralization by antibodies to the SIV envelope glycoprotein

Authors: Michael W. Grunst, et al. Abstract Antibodies specific for diverse epitopes of the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein (SIV Env) have been isolated from rhesus macaques to provide physiologically relevant reagents for investigating antibody-mediated protection in this species as a nonhuman primate model for HIV/AIDS. With increasing interest in the contribution of Fc-mediated effector…

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Liquid biopsy-based monitoring of residual disease in multiple myeloma by analysis of the rearranged immunoglobulin genes–A feasibility study

Authors: Anita Marx, et al. Abstract The need for sensitive monitoring of minimal/measurable residual disease (MRD) in multiple myeloma emerged as novel therapies led to deeper responses. Moreover, the potential benefits of blood-based analyses, the so-called liquid biopsy is prompting more and more studies to assess its feasibility. Considering these recent demands, we aimed to…

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A conformational epitope in placental malaria vaccine antigen VAR2CSA: What does it teach us?

Authors: Justin Y. A. Doritchamou, et al. Abstract VAR2CSA is the Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen that mediates binding of infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) and their sequestration in intervillous spaces of the placenta, leading to placental malaria (PM). Relatively high polymorphism in VAR2CSA sequences has hindered development of a vaccine that induces…

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Globoside and the mucosal pH mediate parvovirus B19 entry through the epithelial barrier

Authors: Corinne Suter, et al. Abstract Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is transmitted primarily via the respiratory route, however, the mechanism involved remains unknown. B19V targets a restricted receptor expressed in erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. However, B19V shifts the receptor under acidic conditions and targets the widely expressed globoside. The pH-dependent interaction with globoside…

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Enhanced stability of the SARS CoV-2 spike glycoprotein following modification of an alanine cavity in the protein core

Authors: Pantelis Poumbourios , et al. Abstract The spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS CoV-2 is the target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that are crucial for vaccine effectiveness. The S1 subunit binds ACE2 while the S2 subunit mediates virus-cell membrane fusion. S2 is a class I fusion glycoprotein subunit and contains a central coiled coil that…

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Identification of CDRH3 loops in the B cell receptor repertoire that can be engaged by candidate immunogens

Authors: Olivia Swanson , et al. Abstract A major goal for the development of vaccines against rapidly mutating viruses, such as influenza or HIV, is to elicit antibodies with broad neutralization capacity. However, B cell precursors capable of maturing into broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can be rare in the immune repertoire. Due to the stochastic…

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