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Risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli carriage among children in a food animal-producing region of Ecuador: A repeated measures observational study

Authors: Heather K. Amato , et al. Abstract Background The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may be driven by human–animal–environment interactions, especially in regions with limited restrictions on antibiotic use, widespread food animal production, and free-roaming domestic animals. In this study, we aimed to identify risk factors related to commercial food animal production, small-scale or “backyard”…

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Gene amplifications cause high-level resistance against albicidin in gram-negative bacteria

Authors: Mareike Saathoff , et al. Abstract Antibiotic resistance is a continuously increasing concern for public healthcare. Understanding resistance mechanisms and their emergence is crucial for the development of new antibiotics and their effective use. The peptide antibiotic albicidin is such a promising candidate that, as a gyrase poison, shows bactericidal activity against a wide…

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Segregational drift hinders the evolution of antibiotic resistance on polyploid replicons

Authors: Ana Garoña , et al. Abstract The emergence of antibiotic resistance under treatment depends on the availability of resistance alleles and their establishment in the population. Novel resistance alleles are encoded either in chromosomal or extrachromosomal genetic elements; both types may be present in multiple copies within the cell. However, the effect of polyploidy…

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The bacterial genetic determinants of Escherichia coli capacity to cause bloodstream infections in humans

Authors: Judit Burgaya , et al. Abstract Escherichia coli is both a highly prevalent commensal and a major opportunistic pathogen causing bloodstream infections (BSI). A systematic analysis characterizing the genomic determinants of extra-intestinal pathogenic vs. commensal isolates in human populations, which could inform mechanisms of pathogenesis, diagnostic, prevention and treatment is still lacking. We used…

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Implications of reducing antibiotic treatment duration for antimicrobial resistance in hospital settings: A modelling study and meta-analysis

Authors: Yin Mo , et al. Abstract Background Reducing antibiotic treatment duration is a key component of hospital antibiotic stewardship interventions. However, its effectiveness in reducing antimicrobial resistance is uncertain and a clear theoretical rationale for the approach is lacking. In this study, we sought to gain a mechanistic understanding of the relation between antibiotic…

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Targeted IS-element sequencing uncovers transposition dynamics during selective pressure in enterococci

Authors: Joshua M. Kirsch, et al. Abstract Insertion sequences (IS) are simple transposons implicated in the genome evolution of diverse pathogenic bacterial species. Enterococci have emerged as important human intestinal pathogens with newly adapted virulence potential and antibiotic resistance. These genetic features arose in tandem with large-scale genome evolution mediated by mobile elements. Pathoadaptation in…

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Roles of qseC mutation in bacterial resistance against anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALFPm3)

Authors: Iyacoob Khunsri, et al. Abstract Propelled by global climate changes, the shrimp industry has been facing tremendous losses in production due to various disease outbreaks, particularly early mortality syndrome (EMS), a disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus AHPND. Not only is the use of antibiotics as EMS control agents not yet been proven successful, but…

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Translating phage therapy into the clinic: Recent accomplishments but continuing challenges

Authors: Aleksandra Petrovic Fabijan, et al. Abstract Phage therapy is a medical form of biological control of bacterial infections, one that uses naturally occurring viruses, called bacteriophages or phages, as antibacterial agents. Pioneered over 100 years ago, phage therapy nonetheless is currently experiencing a resurgence in interest, with growing numbers of clinical case studies being…

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Global, regional, and national estimates of the impact of a maternal Klebsiella pneumoniae vaccine: A Bayesian modeling analysis

Authors: Chirag K. Kumar, et al. Abstract Background Despite significant global progress in reducing neonatal mortality, bacterial sepsis remains a major cause of neonatal deaths. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is the leading pathogen globally underlying cases of neonatal sepsis and is frequently resistant to antibiotic treatment regimens recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), including…

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The cell envelope of Mycobacterium abscessus and its role in pathogenesis

Authors: Shweta Parmar, et al. Citation: Parmar S, Tocheva EI (2023) The cell envelope of Mycobacterium abscessus and its role in pathogenesis. PLoS Pathog 19(5): e1011318. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1011318 Editor: Christoph Dehio, University of Basel, SWITZERLAND Published: May 18, 2023 Copyright: © 2023 Parmar, Tocheva. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the…

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