JCM, Vol. 12, Pages 3608: Prenatal Diagnosis of an Intrathoracic Left Kidney Associated with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Case Report and Systematic Review

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JCM, Vol. 12, Pages 3608: Prenatal Diagnosis of an Intrathoracic Left Kidney Associated with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Case Report and Systematic Review

Journal of Clinical Medicine doi: 10.3390/jcm12113608

Authors:
Giuliana Orlandi
Paolo Toscano
Olimpia Gabrielli
Enrica Di Lella
Antonia Lettieri
Luigi Manzo
Laura Letizia Mazzarelli
Carmine Sica
Letizia Di Meglio
Lavinia Di Meglio
Ferdinando Antonio Gulino
Giosuè Giordano Incognito
Attilio Tuscano
Stefano Cianci
Aniello Di Meglio

Introduction: A congenital intrathoracic kidney (ITK) is a rare anomaly that is recognized to have four causes: renal ectopia with an intact diaphragm, diaphragmatic eventration, diaphragmatic hernia, and traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. We report a case of a prenatal-diagnosed ITK related to a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and conducted a systematic review of all cases of the prenatal diagnosis of this association. Case presentation: A fetal ultrasound scan at 22 gestational weeks showed left CDH and ITK, hyperechoic left lung parenchyma, and mediastinal shift. The fetal echocardiography and karyotype were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging at 30 gestational weeks confirmed the ultrasound suspicion of left CDH in association with bowel and left kidney herniation. The fetal growth, amniotic fluid, and Doppler indices remained within the normal range over time. The woman delivered the newborn via an at-term spontaneous vaginal delivery. The newborn was stabilized and underwent non-urgent surgical correction; the postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusions: CDH is the rarest cause of ITK; we found only eleven cases describing this association. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 29 ± 4 weeks and 4 days. There were seven cases of right and four cases of left CDH. There were associated anomalies in only three fetuses. All women delivered live babies, the herniated kidneys showed no functional damage after their surgical correction, and the prognosis was favorable after surgical repair. The prenatal diagnosis and counseling of this condition are important in planning adequate prenatal and postnatal management in order to improve neonatal outcomes.

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