Sustainability, Vol. 15, Pages 8425: Recovery of Bound Phenolic Compounds from Rice Hulls via Microwave-Assisted Alkaline Hydrolysis

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Sustainability, Vol. 15, Pages 8425: Recovery of Bound Phenolic Compounds from Rice Hulls via Microwave-Assisted Alkaline Hydrolysis

Sustainability doi: 10.3390/su15108425

Authors:
Anastasia Kyriakoudi
Kleoniki Misirli
Ioannis Mourtzinos
Nikolaos Nenadis

The present study aimed to optimize the recovery of bound phenolic antioxidants from rice hulls via microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis using response surface methodology. The microwave treatment duration, temperature, and solvent:solid ratio were the independent variables selected; whereas total phenol content, antioxidant activity (DPPH●, ABTS●+, CUPRAC assays), and the p-coumaric and ferulic acids concentration were the dependent ones. The optimum conditions were found to be 3.6 min, 155 °C, and 50:1 v/w which were then applied to hulls from different rice varieties cultivated in Greece [Gladio, Krezo, Scirocco, Karolina (two samples), Europa, Bravo, Bella (parboiled), and Fino (long-grain rice)]. The results were compared to those obtained using an optimized ultrasound-assisted alkaline hydrolysis protocol (120 min, 80 °C, 50:1 v/w) proposed in the literature. The values obtained with microwaves were much higher compared to those obtained by ultrasounds (i.e., p-coumaric acid levels were 1.2 to 2.2-fold higher, and those of ferulic acid were 2.1 to 6.0-fold higher) using almost 2-fold higher temperature but reducing the hydrolysis duration by ~33-fold. Thus, the optimized approach may assist the valorization of rice hulls as a sustainable source of natural phenolic antioxidants for novel food applications.

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