Sensors, Vol. 23, Pages 4955: Magnetic Signatures and Magnetization Mechanisms for Grinding Burns Detection and Evaluation
Sensors doi: 10.3390/s23104955
Grinding thermal damages, commonly called grinding burns occur when the grinding energy generates too much heat. Grinding burns modify the local hardness and can be a source of internal stress. Grinding burns will shorten the fatigue life of steel components and lead to severe failures. A typical way to detect grinding burns is the so-called nital etching method. This chemical technique is efficient but polluting. Methods based on the magnetization mechanisms are the alternative studied in this work. For this, two sets of structural steel specimens (18NiCr5-4 and X38Cr-Mo16-Tr) were metallurgically treated to induce increasing grinding burn levels. Hardness and surface stress pre-characterizations provided the study with mechanical data. Then, multiple magnetic responses (magnetic incremental permeability, magnetic Barkhausen noise, magnetic needle probe, etc.) were measured to establish the correlations between the magnetization mechanisms, the mechanical properties, and the grinding burn level. Owing to the experimental conditions and ratios between standard deviation and average values, mechanisms linked to the domain wall motions appear to be the most reliable. Coercivity obtained from the Barkhausen noise, or magnetic incremental permeability measurements, was revealed as the most correlated indicator (especially when the very strongly burned specimens were removed from the tested specimens list). Grinding burns, surface stress, and hardness were found to be weakly correlated. Thus, microstructural properties (dislocations, etc.) are suspected to be preponderant in the correlation with the magnetization mechanisms.
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