Polymers, Vol. 15, Pages 2398: Synthesis and Characterization of a New Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Selective Extraction of Mandelic Acid Metabolite from Human Urine as a Biomarker of Environmental and Occupational Exposures to Styrene
Polymers doi: 10.3390/polym15102398
Murad. M. Qronfla
4-Vinylpyridine molecularly imprinted polymer (4-VPMIP) microparticles for mandelic acid (MA) metabolite as a major biomarker of exposure to styrene (S) were synthesized by bulk polymerization with a noncovalent approach. A common mole ratio of 1:4:20 (i.e., metabolite template: functional monomer: cross-linking agent, respectively) was applied to allow the selective solid-phase extraction of MA in a urine sample followed by high-performance liquid chromatography&ndash;diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). In this research, the 4-VPMIP components were carefully selected: MA was used as a template (T), 4-Vinylpyridine (4-VP) as a functional monomer (FM), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker (XL), and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator (I) and acetonitrile (ACN) as a porogenic solvent. Non-imprinted polymer (NIP) which serves as a &ldquo;control&rdquo; was also synthesized simultaneously under the same condition without the addition of MA molecules. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the imprinted and nonimprinted polymer to explain the structural and morphological characteristics of the 4-VPMIP and surface NIP. The results obtained from SEM depicted that the polymers were irregularly shaped microparticles. Moreover, MIPs surfaces had cavities and were rougher than NIP. In addition, all particle sizes were less than 40 &micro;m in diameter. The IR spectra of 4-VPMIPs before washing MA were a little different from NIP, while 4-VPMIP after elution had a spectrum that was almost identical to the NIP spectrum. The adsorption kinetics, isotherms, competitive adsorption, and reusability of 4-VPMIP were investigated. 4-VPMIP showed good recognition selectivity as well as enrichment and separation abilities for MA in the extract of human urine with satisfactory recoveries. The results obtained in this research imply that 4-VPMIP might be used as a sorbent for MA solid-phase extraction (MISPE), for the exclusive extraction of MA in human urine.
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