Plants, Vol. 12, Pages 2055: Phytochemical Compounds Involved in the Bone Regeneration Process and Their Innovative Administration: A Systematic Review

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Plants, Vol. 12, Pages 2055: Phytochemical Compounds Involved in the Bone Regeneration Process and Their Innovative Administration: A Systematic Review

Plants doi: 10.3390/plants12102055

Authors:
Alina Hanga-Farcaș
Florina Miere (Groza)
Gabriela Adriana Filip
Simona Clichici
Luminita Fritea
Laura Grațiela Vicaș
Eleonora Marian
Annamaria Pallag
Tunde Jurca
Sanda Monica Filip
Mariana Eugenia Muresan

Bone metabolism is a complex process which is influenced by the activity of bone cells (e.g., osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts); the effect of some specific biomarkers (e.g., parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, osterix, RANKL, Runx2); and the characteristic signaling pathways (e.g., RANKL/RANK, Wnt/β, Notch, BMP, SMAD). Some phytochemical compounds—such as flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, anthocyanins, terpenoids, polysaccharides, alkaloids and others—presented a beneficial and stimulating effect in the bone regeneration process due to the pro-estrogenic activity, the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory effect and modulation of bone signaling pathways. Lately, nanomedicine has emerged as an innovative concept for new treatments in bone-related pathologies envisaged through the incorporation of medicinal substances in nanometric systems for oral or local administration, as well as in nanostructured scaffolds with huge potential in bone tissue engineering.

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