Pharmaceutics, Vol. 15, Pages 1557: Challenges in the Development and Application of Organ-on-Chips for Intranasal Drug Delivery Studies

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Pharmaceutics, Vol. 15, Pages 1557: Challenges in the Development and Application of Organ-on-Chips for Intranasal Drug Delivery Studies

Pharmaceutics doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051557

Authors:
Muhammad Usman Khan
Xinyu Cai
Zhiwei Shen
Taye Mekonnen
Agisilaos Kourmatzis
Shaokoon Cheng
Hanieh Gholizadeh

With the growing demand for the development of intranasal (IN) products, such as nasal vaccines, which has been especially highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic, the lack of novel technologies to accurately test the safety and effectiveness of IN products in vitro so that they can be delivered promptly to the market is critically acknowledged. There have been attempts to manufacture anatomically relevant 3D replicas of the human nasal cavity for in vitro IN drug tests, and a couple of organ-on-chip (OoC) models, which mimic some key features of the nasal mucosa, have been proposed. However, these models are still in their infancy, and have not completely recapitulated the critical characteristics of the human nasal mucosa, including its biological interactions with other organs, to provide a reliable platform for preclinical IN drug tests. While the promising potential of OoCs for drug testing and development is being extensively investigated in recent research, the applicability of this technology for IN drug tests has barely been explored. This review aims to highlight the importance of using OoC models for in vitro IN drug tests and their potential applications in IN drug development by covering the background information on the wide usage of IN drugs and their common side effects where some classical examples of each area are pointed out. Specifically, this review focuses on the major challenges of developing advanced OoC technology and discusses the need to mimic the physiological and anatomical features of the nasal cavity and nasal mucosa, the performance of relevant drug safety assays, as well as the fabrication and operational aspects, with the ultimate goal to highlight the much-needed consensus, to converge the effort of the research community in this area of work.

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