Molecules, Vol. 28, Pages 4255: GC Analysis, Anticancer, and Antibacterial Activities of Secondary Bioactive Compounds from Endosymbiotic Bacteria of Pomegranate Aphid and Its Predator and Protector

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Molecules, Vol. 28, Pages 4255: GC Analysis, Anticancer, and Antibacterial Activities of Secondary Bioactive Compounds from Endosymbiotic Bacteria of Pomegranate Aphid and Its Predator and Protector

Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules28104255

Authors:
Taghreed Alsufyani
Najwa Al-Otaibi
Noura J. Alotaibi
Nour Houda M’sakni
Eman M. Alghamdi

Bacterial secondary metabolites are a valuable source of various molecules that have antibacterial and anticancer activity. In this study, ten endosymbiotic bacteria of aphids, aphid predators and ants were isolated. Bacterial strains were identified according to the 16S rRNA gene. Ethyl acetate fractions of methanol extract (EA-ME) were prepared from each isolated bacterium and tested for their antibacterial activities using the disk diffusion method. The EA-ME of three bacterial species, Planococcus sp., Klebsiella aerogenes, Enterococcus avium, from the pomegranate aphids Aphis punicae, Chrysoperia carnea, and Tapinoma magnum, respectively, exhibited elevated antibacterial activity against one or several of the five pathogenic bacteria tested. The inhibition zones ranged from 10.00 ± 0.13 to 20.00 ± 1.11 mm, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.156 mg/mL to 1.25 mg/mL. The most notable antibacterial activity was found in the EA-ME of K. aerogenes against Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli, with an MIC value of 0.156 mg/mL. The cytotoxic activity of EA-ME was dependent on the cell line tested. The most significant cytotoxicity effect was observed for extracts of K. aerogenes and E. avium, at 12.5 µg/mL, against the epithelial cells of lung carcinoma (A549), with a cell reduction of 79.4% and 67.2%, respectively. For the EA-ME of K. aerogenes and Pantoea agglomerans at 12.5 µg/mL, 69.4% and 67.8% cell reduction were observed against human colon cancer (Hct116), respectively. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of three EA-ME revealed the presence of several bioactive secondary metabolites that have been reported previously to possess antibacterial and anticancer properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the biological activities of endosymbiotic bacteria in aphids, aphid predators and ants. The promising data presented in this study may pave the way for alternative drugs to overcome the continued emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, and find alternative drugs to conventional cancer therapies.

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