Molecules, Vol. 28, Pages 4226: Mössbauer and Structure-Magnetic Properties Analysis of AyB1−yCxFe2−xO4 (C=Ho,Gd,Al) Ferrite Nanoparticles Optimized by Doping
Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules28104226
AyB1&minus;yCxFe2&minus;xO4 (C=Ho,Gd,Al) ferrite powders have been synthesized by the sol-gel combustion route. The X-ray diffraction of the CoHoxFe2&minus;xO4 (x = 0~0.08) results indicated the compositions of single-phase cubic ferrites. The saturation magnetisation of CoHoxFe2&minus;xO4 decreased by the Ho3+ ions, and the coercivity increased initially and then decreased with the increase of the calcination temperature. The M&ouml;ssbauer spectra indicated that CoHoxFe2&minus;xO4 displays a ferrimagnetic behaviour with two normal split Zeeman sextets. The magnetic hyperfine field tends to decrease by Ho3+ substitution owing to the decrease of the A&ndash;B super-exchange by the paramagnetic rare earth Ho3+ ions. The value of the quadrupole shift was very small in the CoHoxFe2&minus;xO4 specimens, indicating that the symmetry of the electric field around the nucleus is good in the cobalt ferrites. The absorption area of the M&ouml;ssbauer spectra changed with increasing Ho3+ substitution, indicating that the substitution influences the fraction of iron ions at tetrahedral A and octahedral B sites. The X-ray diffraction of Mg0.5Zn0.5CxFe2&minus;xO4(C=Gd,Al) results confirmed the compositions of single-phase cubic ferrites. The variation of the average crystalline size and lattice constant are related to the doping of gadolinium ions and aluminum ions. With increasing gadolinium ions and aluminum ions, the coercivity increased and the saturation magnetization underwent a significant change. The saturation magnetization of AlMg0.5Zn0.5FeO4 ferrite reached a minimum value (MS= 1.94 mu/g). The sample exhibited ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic character with the replacement with Gd3+ ions, that sample exhibited paramagnetic character with the replacement with Al3+ ions, and the isomer shift values indicated that iron is in the form of Fe3+ ions.
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