Molecules, Vol. 28, Pages 4225: Investigation of Fenebrutinib Metabolism and Bioactivation Using MS3 Methodology in Ion Trap LC/MS


Molecules, Vol. 28, Pages 4225: Investigation of Fenebrutinib Metabolism and Bioactivation Using MS3 Methodology in Ion Trap LC/MS

Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules28104225

Aishah M. Alsibaee
Haya I. Aljohar
Mohamed W. Attwa
Ali S. Abdelhameed
Adnan A. Kadi

Fenebrutinib is an orally available Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor. It is currently in multiple phase III clinical trials for the management of B-cell tumors and autoimmune disorders. Elementary in-silico studies were first performed to predict susceptible sites of metabolism and structural alerts for toxicities by StarDrop WhichP450™ module and DEREK software; respectively. Fenebrutinib metabolites and adducts were characterized in-vitro in rat liver microsomes (RLM) using MS3 method in Ion Trap LC-MS/MS. Formation of reactive and unstable intermediates was explored using potassium cyanide (KCN), glutathione (GSH) and methoxylamine as trapping nucleophiles to capture the transient and unstable iminium, 6-iminopyridin-3(6H)-one and aldehyde intermediates, respectively, to generate a stable adducts that can be investigated and analyzed using mass spectrometry. Ten phase I metabolites, four cyanide adducts, five GSH adducts and six methoxylamine adducts of fenebrutinib were identified. The proposed metabolic reactions involved in formation of these metabolites are hydroxylation, oxidation of primary alcohol to aldehyde, n-oxidation, and n-dealkylation. The mechanism of reactive intermediate formation of fenebrutinib can provide a justification of the cause of its adverse effects. Formation of iminium, iminoquinone and aldehyde intermediates of fenebrutinib was characterized. N-dealkylation followed by hydroxylation of the piperazine ring is proposed to cause the bioactivation to iminium intermediates captured by cyanide. Oxidation of the hydroxymethyl group on the pyridine moiety is proposed to cause the generation of reactive aldehyde intermediates captures by methoxylamine. N-dealkylation and hydroxylation of the pyridine ring is proposed to cause formation of iminoquinone reactive intermediates captured by glutathione. FBB and several phase I metabolites are bioactivated to fifteen reactive intermediates which might be the cause of adverse effects. In the future, drug discovery experiments utilizing this information could be performed, permitting the synthesis of new drugs with better safety profile. Overall, in silico software and in vitro metabolic incubation experiments were able to characterize the FBB metabolites and reactive intermediates using the multistep fragmentation capability of ion trap mass spectrometry.

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