Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1110: Coastal Wetland Restoration Strategies Based on Ecosystem Service Changes: A Case Study of the South Bank of Hangzhou Bay
A unique variety of wetlands known as coastal wetlands that connect terrestrial and marine ecosystems is crucial to reducing and adapting to climate change as well as the advancement of human culture. However, the coastal wetland ecosystem is currently in danger as a result of the increasing intensity of human activity, and wetland restoration and reconstruction have garnered a lot of interest. The differentiated ecological restoration strategies based on ecosystem service change analysis can provide a reference for the effective management and sustainability of coastal wetland ecosystems. The InVEST model and ArcGIS were used to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in ecosystem services before and after the implementation of coastal wetland restoration policies based on remote sensing image data, meteorological and soil data, etc. The ecological restoration pattern of coastal wetlands was divided, and the corresponding ecological restoration strategies were proposed in this study. The following are the results: (1) there are still many wetlands that have been converted to non-wetlands following the implementation of the wetland restoration policy, and the ecosystem services as a whole exhibit a rising and then falling trend, with a rise from 2005 to 2015, a fall in 2015 due to the creation of Hangzhou Bay New District, and a slight improvement to 2020. Among them, the water yield increased continuously, the carbon storage fluctuated, and the habitat quality did not improve significantly. (2) The hot spots of ecosystem services were concentrated in the south and southeast of the study area, with no obvious cold spots. (3) By comprehensively analyzing the changes and spatial patterns of ecosystem services, the coastal wetlands on the south bank of Hangzhou Bay were divided into an ecological conservation zone, a green development zone, and an ecological restoration zone at the township level, and corresponding optimization strategies were proposed. The results can provide a reference for the fine-grained and differentiated management of regional ecosystem services.
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