Insects, Vol. 14, Pages 485: Nine Mitochondrial Genomes of Phasmatodea with Two Novel Mitochondrial Gene Rearrangements and Phylogeny
Insects doi: 10.3390/insects14050485
Kenneth B. Storey
The classification of stick and leaf insects (Order Phasmatodea) is flawed at various taxonomic ranks due to a lack of robust phylogenetic relationships and convergent morphological characteristics. In this study, we sequenced nine new mitogenomes that ranged from 15,011 bp to 17,761 bp in length. In the mitogenome of Carausis sp., we found a translocation of trnR and trnA, which can be explained by the tandem duplication/random loss (TDRL) model. In the Stheneboea repudiosa Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907, a novel mitochondrial structure of 12S rRNA-CR1-trnI-CR2-trnQ-trnM was found for the first time in Phasmatodea. Due to the low homology of CR1 and CR2, we hypothesized that trnI was inverted through recombination and then translocated into the middle of the control region. Control region repeats were frequently detected in the newly sequenced mitogenomes. To explore phylogenetic relationships in Phasmatodea, mtPCGs from 56 Phasmatodean species (composed of 9 stick insects from this study, 31 GenBank data, and 16 data derived from transcriptome splicing) were used for Bayesian inference (BI), and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses. Both analyses supported the monophyly of Lonchodinae and Necrosciinae, but Lonchodidae was polyphyletic. Phasmatidae was monophyletic, and Clitumninae was paraphyletic. Phyllidae was located at the base of Neophasmatodea and formed a sister group with the remaining Neophasmatodea. Bacillidae and Pseudophasmatidae were recovered as a sister group. Heteroptergidae was monophyletic, and the Heteropteryginae sister to the clade (Obriminae + Dataminae) was supported by BI analysis and ML analysis.
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