IJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 9101: Plasmatic MicroRNAs and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Hospital-Based Cohort Study and In Silico Analysis

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IJMS, Vol. 24, Pages 9101: Plasmatic MicroRNAs and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Hospital-Based Cohort Study and In Silico Analysis

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms24109101

Authors:
Jani Silva
Valéria Tavares
Ana Afonso
Juliana Garcia
Fátima Cerqueira
Rui Medeiros

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies among men worldwide. Inevitably, all advanced PCa patients develop metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), an aggressive phase of the disease. Treating mCRPC is challenging, and prognostic tools are needed for disease management. MicroRNA (miRNA) deregulation has been reported in PCa, constituting potential non-invasive prognostic biomarkers. As such, this study aimed to evaluate the prognostic potential of nine miRNAs in the liquid biopsies (plasma) of mCRPC patients treated with second-generation androgen receptor axis-targeted (ARAT) agents, abiraterone acetate (AbA) and enzalutamide (ENZ). Low expression levels of miR-16-5p and miR-145-5p in mCRPC patients treated with AbA were significantly associated with lower progression-free survival (PFS). The two miRNAs were the only predictors of the risk of disease progression in AbA-stratified analyses. Low miR-20a-5p levels in mCRPC patients with Gleason scores of <8 were associated with worse overall survival (OS). The transcript seems to predict the risk of death regardless of the ARAT agent. According to the in silico analyses, miR-16-5p, miR-145-5p, and miR-20a-5p seem to be implicated in several processes, namely, cell cycle, proliferation, migration, survival, metabolism, and angiogenesis, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism related to treatment outcome. These miRNAs may represent attractive prognostic tools to be used in mCRPC management, as well as a step further in the identification of new potential therapeutic targets, to use in combination with ARAT for an improved treatment outcome. Despite the promising results, real-world validation is necessary.

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