Entropy, Vol. 25, Pages 831: Multivariate Time Series Information Bottleneck
Entropy doi: 10.3390/e25050831
Time series (TS) and multiple time series (MTS) predictions have historically paved the way for distinct families of deep learning models. The temporal dimension, distinguished by its evolutionary sequential aspect, is usually modeled by decomposition into the trio of &ldquo;trend, seasonality, noise&rdquo;, by attempts to copy the functioning of human synapses, and more recently, by transformer models with self-attention on the temporal dimension. These models may find applications in finance and e-commerce, where any increase in performance of less than 1% has large monetary repercussions, they also have potential applications in natural language processing (NLP), medicine, and physics. To the best of our knowledge, the information bottleneck (IB) framework has not received significant attention in the context of TS or MTS analyses. One can demonstrate that a compression of the temporal dimension is key in the context of MTS. We propose a new approach with partial convolution, where a time sequence is encoded into a two-dimensional representation resembling images. Accordingly, we use the recent advances made in image extension to predict an unseen part of an image from a given one. We show that our model compares well with traditional TS models, has information&ndash;theoretical foundations, and can be easily extended to more dimensions than only time and space. An evaluation of our multiple time series&ndash;information bottleneck (MTS-IB) model proves its efficiency in electricity production, road traffic, and astronomical data representing solar activity, as recorded by NASA&rsquo;s interface region imaging spectrograph (IRIS) satellite.
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