Applied Sciences, Vol. 13, Pages 6345: Center-to-Center Distance’s Effect between Vertical Square Tubes of a Horizontal Array on Natural Convection Heat Transfer
Applied Sciences doi: 10.3390/app13106345
Nader S. Saleh
An experimental study on natural convection heat transfer from the outer surface of a horizontal array of vertical square tubes in the air is investigated. The array consists of three vertical square tubes at equally different center-to-center distances. Each tube has a square cross-section with a side length of 2.00 cm, 100 cm length, and is filled with sand. Each tube is heated by inserting an internal heating element with a constant heat flux at the center. Five center-to-center separation distance to hydraulic diameter ratios (S/D) are used at different heat flux ranges of 70&ndash;360 W/m2. Results show that at small S/D, the Nusselt number of any tube in the array is lower than that of the single tube up to a specific S/D and then increases as the ratio increases. Empirical correlations are obtained for each tube in the array at different S/D using the modified Rayleigh numbers only. General correlations using S/D as a parameter are obtained for each tube, and an overall general correlation using both S/D and the tube number (n) as parameters is obtained. The difference between the predicted and experimental Nusselt numbers is in the reasonable range even at high Rayleigh numbers.
MDPI Publishing. Click here to Read More