Applied Sciences, Vol. 13, Pages 6299: The Study of Multi-Stage Cold Forming Process for the Manufacture of Relief Valve Regulating Nuts

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Applied Sciences, Vol. 13, Pages 6299: The Study of Multi-Stage Cold Forming Process for the Manufacture of Relief Valve Regulating Nuts

Applied Sciences doi: 10.3390/app13106299

Authors:
Chih-Cheng Yang
Chi-Hsuan Liu

Cold forging is widely used in many industries. Multi-stage cold forming is usually utilized in forging fasteners. In this study, numerical simulation and experimental investigations were carried out on a five-stage cold-forming process for the manufacturing of low-carbon steel AISI 1010 relief valve regulating nuts. The forming process through five stages included preparation and centering for backward extrusion, backward extrusion over die pin, upset, backward extrusion over moving punch, and piercing. The formability of the workpiece was studied, such as the effects on forming force response, maximum forming force, effective stress and effective strain distributions, metal flow patterns, and strength. A comparison of the forming forces obtained in the forming experiment with the numerical simulation results of the five-stage cold forming showed a good agreement with the trend of the forming force growth. For the maximum forming force and forming energy, the fourth stage of backward extrusion over the moving punch at the upper face was the largest among the five stages. The total maximum forming forces from the first to the fifth stages were numerically 440.9 kN and experimentally 449.4 kN, meaning the FE simulation and experimental results were in good agreement. The numerically simulated effective strain distributions were consistent with the experimentally tested hardness distributions. Highly compacted grain flow lines also resulted in higher hardness. The overall hardness of the workpiece formed by five-stage cold forming increased by 31% compared to the initial billet. The hardness of the workpiece increased with the forming stages, and the strain-hardening effect was obvious. The strength of the workpiece was significantly increased by five-stage cold forming.

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