Sex Differences in Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Mindfulness Among Patients With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

SAGE Open, Volume 13, Issue 2, April-June 2023.
An in-depth understanding of psychological symptoms and mindfulness of men and women with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may help develop sex-specific treatments and outcomes. This study aimed to examine differences in depression, anxiety, stress, and mindfulness between men and women undergoing PCI using a convenience sample of 114 participants (81 men and 33 women) with PCI at a university hospital in 2013. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Korean version of the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale were administered. The depression, anxiety, and stress scores of women were higher than those of men, with no significant differences in mindfulness between the two sexes. The comparison of cutoff scores for severity (normal scores vs. ≥ mild) of depression, anxiety, and stress for men versus women revealed a higher proportion of women in the ≥ mild categories for the three components. Women who received PCI showed greater psychological distress than men. Therefore, awareness of these differences may alert cardiovascular nurses to employ systematic vigilance in assessing and mitigating this distress among cardiac patients, particularly women.

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