Remote Sensing, Vol. 15, Pages 2678: Regional Variability of Raindrop Size Distribution from a Network of Disdrometers over Complex Terrain in Southern China
Remote Sensing doi: 10.3390/rs15102678
Raindrop size distribution (DSD) over the complex terrain of Guangdong Province, southern China, was studied using six disdrometers operated by the Guangdong Meteorology Service during the period 1 March 2018 to 30 August 2022 (~5 years). To analyze the long-term DSD characteristics over complex topography in southern China, three stations on the windward side, Haifeng, Enping and Qingyuan, and three stations on the leeward side, Meixian, Luoding and Xuwen, were utilized. The median mass-weighted diameter (Dm) value was higher on the windward than on the leeward side, and the windward-side stations also showed greater Dm variability. With regard to the median generalized intercept (log10Nw) value, the log10Nw values decreased from coastal to mountainous areas. Although there were some differences in Dm, log10Nw and liquid water content (LWC) frequency between the six stations, there were still some similarities, with the Dm, log10Nw and LWC frequency all showing a single-peak curve. In addition, the diurnal variation of the mean log10Nw had a negative relationship with Dm diurnal variation although the inverse relationship was not particularly evident at the Haifeng site. The diurnal mean rainfall rate also peaked in the afternoon and exceeded the maximum at night which indicated that strong land heating in the daytime significantly influenced the local DSD variation. What is more, the number concentration of drops, N(D), showed an exponential shape which decreased monotonically for all rainfall rate types at the six observation sites, and an increase in diameter caused by increases in the rainfall rate was also noticeable. As the rainfall rate increased, the N(D) for sites on the windward side (i.e., Haifeng, Enping and Qingyuan) were higher than for the sites on the leeward side (i.e., Meixian, Luoding and Xuwen), and the difference between them also became distinct. The abovementioned DSD characteristic differences also showed appreciable variability in convective precipitation between stations on the leeward side (i.e., Meixian, Luoding and Xuwen) and those on the windward side (Haifeng and Enping, but not Qingyuan). This study enhances the precision of numerical weather forecast models in predicting precipitation and verifies the accuracy of measuring precipitation through remote sensing instruments, including weather radars located on the ground.
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