Atmosphere, Vol. 14, Pages 899: Time–Frequency Characteristics and SARIMA Forecasting of Atmospheric Water Vapor in East Asia

Atmosphere, Vol. 14, Pages 899: Time–Frequency Characteristics and SARIMA Forecasting of Atmospheric Water Vapor in East Asia

Atmosphere doi: 10.3390/atmos14050899

Authors:
Chaoli Tang
Ziyue Tong
Yuanyuan Wei
Xin Wu
Xiaomin Tian
Jie Yang

Given the increasing impact of extreme rainfall and flooding on human life, studying and predicting changes in atmospheric water vapor (AWV) becomes particularly important. This paper analyzes the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data of the East Asian region from January 2003 to February 2023. The AWV data are examined in the time and frequency domain using methods such as empirical orthogonal function (EOF), Mann–Kendall (MK) analysis, and others. Additionally, four prediction models are applied to forecast the monthly average AWV data for the next year. The accuracy of these models is evaluated using metrics such as mean square error (MSE), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and coefficient of determination (R2). The findings reveal several key insights: (1) The East Asian region exhibits highly variable seasonal variability in AWV, with identified mutation points after the MK test. (2) Spatial analysis shows high AWV data in the southern coastal areas of China, Thailand, Myanmar, Nansha Islands, and other regions during winter, while the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region experiences low AWV during summer. (3) The first mode obtained through EOF decomposition contributes over 60% of the variance. Analysis of this mode reveals an increasing trend in AWV data for regions such as the Indian peninsula, Mongolia, and central and northeastern China over the past nine years. Conversely, the Bay of Bengal, Spratly Islands, eastern coast, and certain areas display a decreasing trend. (4) Employing the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the study identifies AWV data as a non-stationary series with an overall decreasing trend from 2003 to 2022. The filtered AWV series undergoes fast Fourier transform (FFT), uncovering periodicities of 2.6 years, 5 years, and 19 years. (5) Among the four forecasting models compared, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA) demonstrates superior performance with the smallest MSE of 0.00782, MAE of 0.06977, RMSE of 0.08843, and the largest R2 value of 0.98454. These results clearly indicate that the SARIMA model provides the best fit. Therefore, the SARIMA forecasting model can be effectively utilized for forecasting AWV data, offering valuable insights for studying weather variability.

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