Nonlinear Interferometry for Quantum-Enhanced Measurements of Multiphoton Absorption

Multiphoton absorption is of vital importance in many spectroscopic, microscopic, or lithographic applications. However, given that it is an inherently weak process, the detection of multiphoton absorption signals typically requires large field intensities, hindering its applicability in many practical situations. In this Letter, we show that placing a multiphoton absorbent inside an imbalanced nonlinear interferometer can enhance the precision of multiphoton cross section estimation with respect to strategies based on photon-number measurements using coherent or even squeezed light directly transmitted through the medium. In particular, the power scaling of the sensitivity with photon flux can be increased by 1 order compared with transmission measurements of the sample with coherent light, such that the measurement precision at any given intensity can be greatly enhanced. Furthermore, we show that this enhanced measurement precision is robust against experimental imperfections leading to photon losses, which usually tend to degrade the detection sensitivity. We trace the origin of this enhancement to an optimal degree of squeezing which has to be generated in a nonlinear SU(1,1) interferometer.

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  • Received 6 October 2022
  • Revised 30 March 2023
  • Accepted 25 April 2023


Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI. Open access publication funded by the Max Planck Society.

Published by the American Physical Society

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